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Canopies casting shadows

The powerful impact of shadows should not be underestimated in gardens. The shapes and patterns that are generated by trees and tall structures can enliven ground planes in a richly rewarding manner. 

Here the wiring of a pergola has been set in different directions and the shadows of the espalier apples can be seen to crawl across the gravel in opposite directions. The impact of the ground plane shadows is arguably as great as that of the espalier pergola above.